Rotavirus infection is an acute contagious disease of men and animals that is caused by Rotavirus, is passed by a fecal-oral mechanism, and is characterized by the damage of gastro-intestinal tract (as gastroenteritis).
Etiology: an agent is Rotavirus from Rheoviridae.
· the source of infection is patient or virus carrier;
· the mechanism of transmission is fecal-oral (through the infected water, food, direct contact);
· receptivity is high in case of decreased immunity.
1. Virus invasion to the thin intestine epithelial cells (enterocytes).
2. Replication of virus and destruction of enterocytes.
3. Increased growth of immature cells.
4. Enzyme insufficiency.
5. Violation of digestion and suction, accumulation of disaccharides.
6. Overabundance of liquid and electrolytes in the intestine.
1. Latent period is 1-4 days.
2. DVF-syndrome (diarrhea, vomiting, fever):
ü diarrhea (gastroenteritis, enterocolitis) during 3-6 days stools are «sprinkling», colorless, watery;
ü Vomits (precedes or appears together with diarrhea) during 1-3 days;
ü Fever (moderate) - 2-4 days.
Features of Rotavirus infection in new-born
ü Often is hospital infection.
ü Acute beginning with the refuse of breast feeding, vomits, diarrhea, development of the dehydration ІІ-ІІІ stage
ü Possible gradual beginning with growth of degree of dehydration.
Often is lethal.
Confirmation of diagnosis
ü Virology by immune-electronic microscopy, IEА, diffuses precipitation in a gael.
ü Serological - NR, CBR, DHAR.
ü In koprogram - lymphocytes, impaired enzyme intestinal function.
Rota-viral infection typical form, severe degree.
Complication: hypotonic dehydration, 2nd degree.
A differential diagnosis is performed with cholera, salmonellosis, enterotoxigenic escherichiosis; acute intestinal infections caused by relative pathogenic bacteria.
Treatment: see treatment of Ecsherichiosis
ü Sanitary disposal of human feces
ü Protection, purification and boiling of water
ü Correct preparing and saving of foodstuffs
ü Person hygiene
ü Isolation period –until the stool culture taken 3 days after stopping treatment is negative
ü Current and terminal disinfection
ü Medical supervision for 1-3 mo
For the specific prophylaxis of rotavirus infection there are two vaccines . Both accepted oral and contain a weak living virus of 1-4th types.
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